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  2009/03/26 02:22PM

 

2009/03/18 Wed, sunny/cloudy, outdoor 30-21°C, indoor 23.9°C The Supreme Source》:平等性與遍智 

 

我們來兼摘一點書,中英文都摘,這樣就沒問題。你知道平等性或大平等性英文是什麼?Equalitysupreme equality。平等性說的不是什麼主權平等、人生而平等,平等性說的是:

From this non-conceptualizable state, the wisdom of qualities spontaneously arises: this is the essence of total openness in which the discursive state is directly present. Whoever enters this pure path achieves supreme equality.

As this state is unchanging and not subject to transformation, there is no room for attachment. Likewise, as no object exists, there is no room for the mind. Those who get stuck in the desire for a concrete achievement always meditate on a cause, but the state of equality does not derive from the pleasure of attachment to such meditation. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 158)

睡前我接續之前讀到新版《夢瑜珈》的南開諾布的 Dreams of Clarity,在一個夢中他跟叔叔仁波切來到空行淨土,空行、勇士都僅穿人骨項鍊當裝飾,他還學會空行母們唱的歌,也不是每個人都會唱,只有幾位仁波切會唱幾句而已。我不是要講這個,我是要講平等性,歌詞是:

See everything here is beautiful; those assembled here have no doubt; enjoy with the knowledge that Brahmin (?), outcast, dog and pig have the same nature. (Dream Yoga and the Practice of Natural Light, p. 98)

打英文是因為我剛讀的,留學美國時我都跟我的美國貓 Mimosa 英語聊天呢,是不是有人要說:「哦,好口怕啊!」(上師的口音)上師今晚口傳開示時,我看見他腦袋邊有隻蚊子縈繞,我第一念想除了牠、怕牠叮咬師父,第二念才想到蚊子眾生也來聽聞佛法,真是不知不覺種下善因,下個生世轉生為人,所以便不去在意蚊子了。是啊豬跟狗都具有的本質,不可以這麼瞧不起人家。

 

還有一個詞叫 omniscience,佛法名詞不叫全知,而是遍智。佛法的遍智必須透過菩提心的修持而得,也就是利他的悲心,敦珠法王說:「發菩提心,是說如果我們的行為只求自利,即非踵武(?)佛陀的遍智道。換言之,菩提道便被障礙了。因此,在世俗菩提心的修持中,生起菩提心,……是一個很重要的修持。……而無法解脫的原因,便是因為我們做不到對他人生起悲心,和我們對自我及此生的執著。」(《敦珠新寶藏前行讚頌》p. 22

Omniscience arises only when one enters the path of the essence; when one conceptualizes the condition "as it is," meditation becomes conceptual.

Desiring bliss is the disease of attachment: unless one cures it with the efficacious medicine of unmovable equanimity 平靜, then even the causes of rebirth in the higher states get stained by the passions. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde,, p. 159)

閱讀《The Supreme Source》,覺得要達到本覺的修持真的是非常高標的難。秋竹仁波切今天簡短中文解說「堪布雅嘎傳記」說到,堪布名叫阿瓊,不是什麼偉大的名字,就跟我們叫阿貴、阿珠一樣,阿瓊生下來八個月大不經爬行直接走路,人們都說這是不祥的徵兆,上師說佛法都是跟大多數人的看法相反,越不吉利的事越吉祥,所以大師們從來不挑什麼黃道吉日,專挑兇日出門,為的是要破除人們的執著。所以在自己身上破除很多狹隘的觀點,限制性的意念、社會文化的窠臼,都需要一一打破。我要說的是《The Supreme Source》這一章 The Root Tantra,打破九乘下面八乘所有的思想觀念與作法,連唐望巫士傳承奉為圭臬的 intend 也照破不誤,我讀到時真是嘆為觀止!

Listen, Great Sattvavajra! Just like space, the state of non-action can not be localized. The path of Dharma of absence of thought, without abode or support, derives from a subtle desire tied to intention. However, such conceptual meditation does not at all touch dharmakaya 法身 because self-arising wisdom is the absence of thought naturally present in everything. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 158)

Non-action」也是唐望巫士的「不做」,但是 non-intention 就難了。不過雖然這一章都在講打破因果的修法,上師今天卻說我們還是要遵守因果法則,善因得善果:行善不會得懲罰;行惡不會得獎賞,當然這是相對層面裡的法則。對了我忘記說一點,中觀應成四邊不靠走中間算起來還算簡單啦,阿底瑜伽也就是大圓滿什麼都不靠才難咧,這部分我得要慢慢摘了。

 


2009/03/19 Thur, cloudy, outdoor 28-26°C, indoor 24.9°C The Supreme Source》:no "real" truth exists

 

繼續來摘佛書。昨天拿到新版《堪布阿瓊仁波切密傳》,是寫〈探索夢的奧秘〉的丹增嘉措活佛(跟達賴喇嘛譯名一樣),所以跟原先流通的網路版本(《阿格旺波尊者自傳》)不同,主要針對實修部分說明得更詳盡,翻譯的也比先前版本好。今天僅摘一段是人家阿瓊十七歲的經驗。〔當然阿瓊是也是知名大成就者毗瑪拉密札(無垢友)的轉世。〕這個版本是網路版我想應該可以找得到。

DOC堪布阿瓊仁波切密傳
文件格式:DOC/Microsoft Word - HTML

17歲時就念誦了一遍《大般若經》,並因而對空性之義生起了極大的歡喜心。當讀到經典堶情u以幻對幻起執著」等文句時,感覺一切顯現均無實有,皆如夢似幻。那年的前半個冬天,內心生起了遠離一多邊執的境界,從而更加使我堅固了無論何時何地「人我」與「法我」都根本無存的定解,對兒時月稱菩薩所說的「眼耳鼻非量,色聲意亦非……」等緣起無自性的道理,也有了穩固的定解。每當自己安住於此種境界時,能執之心首先中斷,面前僅剩淡淡的顯現。不久後,那淡淡的顯現也自然消失,在自性空明的境界中,有一種空蕩蕩的感覺。接下來,連空蕩蕩的感覺也消失殆盡,心與空二者融合一味,如水溶於水般無二無別。處於此種境界中,不再生起任何分別念。如果從中回到世俗粗大的心態時,則覺得一切顯現都變得如夢幻般無有實體,除了偶爾會產生少許執著心之外,幾乎已沒有了分別執著的念頭。

我以此推斷,在那些得地聖者菩薩們的心相續中,不會存在持續不斷的執著心,但也並非根本不生執著心,這是我個人(對此問題)的看法。這種空性的無分別心現量,與後來27歲時獲得「覺性如量相」時顯發出的能所實相覺性智慧和妙理智慧的現量有很大差別。通過自己的親身體驗,就能很清楚地了知這一點。因為(入定時)有不同的現量(空性的現量和智慧的現量),所以(在出定時),消除煩惱障的力量和擇法覺支的智慧力量就有明顯的差別。

這是針對當前有些人所持有的顯密見道和證悟之智慧完全一致的說法,而特意做的簡略開示。(丹增嘉措活佛譯《堪布阿瓊仁波切密傳》)  

我是在修一切顯現均無實性,但是現在還要加修一切皆本覺所顯,就顯然有點困難了。

I am the primordial source, pure and total consciousness. All that manifests from me, too, is pure and total consciousness. "Pure" because my essence is completely pure from the beginning; "total" because I have always pervaded everything; "consciousness" because my essence, being clarity, has always been consciousness. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 157)

這樣講起來《The Supreme Source》還真有《奇蹟課程》的味道。P. 153 我摘過嗎?之所以我覺得中觀見似乎還比較容易是因為只要不承許任何說法即可,但是阿底瑜伽大圓滿更要遠離一切概念,凡相對的均不沾:

Some people affirm that the relative and absolute inseparably are the single truth. However, no "real" truth exists and the very fact of deeming something "real" betokens 預示 illusion.

The desire for happiness is the disease of attachment; one can be happy only when free of desires. ...If someone believes the opposite, let them go ahead and try to find enlightenment: apart from the dimension of fundamental reality, they will find nothing at all. So, instead of aiming for enlightenment, one has to understand the nature of one's mind beyond action. On examining one's mind, one finds nothing, yet at the same time there is clarity that is ever present. It does not manifest concretely, yet its essence is all pervading: this is the way its nature presents itself. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 153)

所以,這些無非是要建立一個見地是沒有什麼真實的,因為所謂真實必有不真實存在,有相對便有絕對,這些依然是屬於二元世界的產物。師兄要引用秋竹上師的著作來理解《普賢上師言教》有關前修修法的內容,我大概只想到一個「見由高下、修由低起」(大意),意思是我們見地要高,修行則要由最低扎根實修起。

 

空性見如何落實於四加行實修?我覺得不去想它比較好,就做。哦,阿瓊自傳說到一句蠻好的,他說:「世間的財物,當你專門去尋求時,(可能)怎麼找都找不到;而當你不要它們的時候,它們偏偏(自動)尋上門來……」(《堪布阿瓊仁波切密傳》)這有點像我在寫札記一樣,哪天會有什麼影響,我也沒有辦法預期,唐望巫士說戰士之道就是一直保持不為所動地行動。

 

師公敦珠法王說:

你若仔細觀察,便逐漸發覺一切法都是空性所變現。當窮究一切法的本質,最後都是歸之於空性。……只是口頭上說空性仍有不足,一定先要證悟空性然後去體會它。……(《敦珠新寶藏前行讚頌》p. 24 


2009/03/21 Sat, cloudy, indoor 24.5°C The Supreme Source》:不能說「一」

 

我有摘過不能說「一」嗎。沒有。這位 Supreme Source 說:「Like space, form the beginning it is beyond conceptual limits, it cannot become an object and cannot even be conceived of in terms of "one." Pure and total consciousness is not subject to quantity and cannot be depicted in any way. In this way there appears the manifestation of the five elements, of the six classes of beings, and of the two types of emanations of the dimension of form sambhogakaya 報身 and nirmanakaya 化身 that act for their benefits.」(p. 141

 

堪布雅嘎除了八個月不經爬行就會走路,很小的時候睡覺就經歷到五大融解的過程,我一直到現在出體 380 次也沒哪次經歷白、紅黃……,嗯順序是什麼研究一下:

大約過了一年以後,有位慈祥的老婦來做我的養母,從此我便時常躺在她的懷抱堣J睡。而每當入睡的那一刻,耳邊總會感到像是響起了雷聲般「轟隆隆」的巨大聲響,眼前則突然現出如同太陽照射在雪山上的那種反光,晶亮耀眼。過了一會兒,白光變成渾然一體的紅光,恰似一片紅得似火的雲霞,我心媟P到一陣憋悶。忽然,藍光滾裹著白光,紅光又被強光吸卷到堶情A瞬間我就從中悶絕了過去……片刻之後,我處於一種無有中邊的明空境界中,接著,四下堥麭B都遍滿豔麗繽紛的白、紅、黃、藍、綠五種色光,其中間部分像是簇簇灌木叢的光團,周圍則有大大小小、晶瑩剔透的顆顆明點,散射著無量的光焰。與此同時,許多狀如兵器般的束束光芒又刺入我的眼簾,心中不免感到萬分恐懼……我一邊喊著養母,一邊叫嚷著:「怕、怕……」養母趕緊點起酥油燈照著我說:「不用怕!你看看,這不什麼都沒有嘛!」……

白、紅、黃、藍、綠,就是地、水、火、風、空五大元素融解的顏色。我只有比較明顯的白光跟紅光經驗,白是一般瀕死經驗者經歷到第一層次的分解時的顏色,也是剛入睡時容易觀察到的,見到紅色時身體已經熟睡,這也是卡斯塔尼達描述的做夢或出體時機,後面就很難了吧,我只有夢中看過綠色跟藍色的 LED,可能分解不完全。新時代最愛說「一切萬有」(oneness),繼續講不能說「一」:

To those attracted by oneness, I teach that the ineffable essence is one alone. As all phenomena are contained in the single essence, I teach that the condition of pure and total consciousness, the true nature of mind, is the source of all. Whereas, to those attracted by multiplicity, I teach the infinite variety that manifests form me: it too is my nature. One is my essence. Two is my manifestation, the multiplicity of created phenomena. Numbers start from one and two, but their end cannot be determined. The ineffable is the ultimate nature of existence: this ineffable essence is the one. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 141)

用肯恩•威爾伯的話來說,本覺是無色、無相、無時間也無空間性的,本覺沒有任何屬性(《一味》p. 200),當然也無法計量。這樣講起來不是又變成「一即一切、一切即一」了嗎?我上 Amazon 查肯恩•威爾伯很久沒有新書問世,不知道他目前的進展或者證悟到什麼境界了?

 「空不異色,色不異空」可能是最著名的不二論了(這句話來自心經,它涵蓋了整個大乘佛法的精髓,這項革命大部分是由龍樹推動的)。「涅槃」和「輪迴」、太一(the One)與萬殊(the Many)、向上迴旋及向下迴旋、智慧和慈悲、能觀與所觀——它們全是非二元對立的。然而這二元對立性並非一種概念或觀念,而是直接的體悟。如果你把它變成一種觀念或信仰,禪師就會狠狠地用香板打你一板。因此,非二元對立性經常被稱為「非異」、「非一」(為的是不讓你把它變成觀念上的一元論、生命之網理論或平板世界的整體論)。(《一味》p. 215

幾個名相需要澄清,我不是很想摘「向上迴旋及向下迴旋」因為這是肯恩的象限理論或者是譯者自己的發明,肯恩寫的其實是Ascending and Descending,這我在《The Supreme Source》也有見過。太一與萬殊恐怕也是譯者的創意,我就沒聽過萬殊。

 


2009/03/23 Mon, cloudy/raining, indoor 22.9°C, 〈遙啟上師讚頌釋〉:一醒來便觀察根本覺的自性 

 

跟法海喇嘛聊出體,他今天說的「體內作夢」,應該是普通夢,由於身體氣的運行,還有一些內分泌的影響,刺激心識產生反應。譬如你壓到手可能作一個有人攬住你手臂或獅子咬你手臂的夢,但是明夢(dreams of clarity)或出體夢則是體外做夢,跟肉身沒有多大關連,而是意識投射。但說到底根本沒有身體內或者身體外這兩樣東西,不如說是天空的雲的夢跟天空的夢,前者是普通夢(都是雲翳),後者是明夢(清朗天空但還是有顯現)。 今天跟他談話還蠻有意思的,以後我有機會多問問。

 

我們換摘山藩法王的〈遙啟上師讚頌釋〉。重點有四個:(1)如何體認大圓滿(Dzogpa Chenpo)教法中所述三身的覺性;(2)如何將此三身與自己上師聯繫起來;(3)上師如何自其悲心中體現三身;(4)如何理解我們的證悟無非是上師悲心的體現。因為南開諾布也花了不少篇幅講三身,也就是 three dimensions of existence,這裡也說:「當我們說上師代表『三身』時,我們須從三個層次去理解上師所作的事業」(p. 56)。有一個我一直沒搞很懂也記不清楚的早上醒來的本覺練習,之前南開諾布提過:

此修持,應於清晨(當你在床上剛剛自睡眠中甦醒剎那)立即開始。寧瑪派有些修持,於甦醒時立刻殷勤持咒召請蓮師及諸佛;但《遙請上師讚頌》之修持,只要求當你甦醒時,便觀察根本覺的自性。這個修持,在於清晨中令見地生起及安住,因此,切須謹記:當你早上剛清醒時,馬上開始修法。你可將此修法,與其他修持交替而作。

對於你們當中有修習睡夢瑜伽的人來說,《遙請上師讚頌》的修持,能夠將見地與睡夢瑜伽覺性的境界融成一味。對於那些將睡夢瑜伽視作有區別的人來說,我們可以在大清早(當如實幻境開始之前)便修持正見、正解和正行,從而使到加持能整日不斷。(《敦珠新寶藏前行讚頌》p. 55

這個得到上師加持一整天的關鍵,是要視上師的「三身」顯現出大圓滿的「三相」:空性、光明及周遍大悲,換句易懂的連貫句就是:「此根本體性是廣大空性,光明由此生起,亦由此生起遍一切有情之悲心」(p. 56),這個就是見地。再來就是保持住這個見地(安住)。

我們在早上的第一件事,便是觀上師的悲心與大力化為「三身」。對金剛乘來說,此加持乃一切師尊示現的根源,是故,我們尤須了悟上師「三身」的體現。此修持亦名為大圓滿直指教授,因為它清楚明白地表達了大圓滿的見地。例如,你了悟上師的悲心及其覺性的本質遍滿一切有情,正如天雨灑在一片土地上,每分土地皆能同時得到利益一樣。這即是諸佛之悲心,及其悲心如何遍滿一切有情的情況。(《敦珠新寶藏前行讚頌》p. 56

這裡強調根據大圓滿教法,「三相」對我們的修持對非常重要,「三相」說的是:體性、自相和悲心。讓我們複習一下以前摘《心經內義與究竟義》時,三相即寧瑪派三句義:體性本淨、自相任運、大悲周遍,其實這樣繞一圈看起來也能讀懂分別講的是存在的三個層面:法身、報身、化身。因為法身體性本淨,報身層次顯現無礙、化身及於六道一切有情。同樣換做剛摘不久的南開諾布英文版,「三相」說的就是 essencenatureenergy

讚頌由法身至報身再至化身。由法身的觀點帶出智金剛——自廣大根本虛空或空性所生的本覺智。由空性所發出的光輝,即無礙光明——一切有情所起所起之悲心,便是由此清淨光明而體現。這便是三次第。當我們跟它們融合時,空性便是指法身的真實境界;無礙光明即報身;而遍一切有情的悲心則為化身。(《敦珠新寶藏前行讚頌》p. 60


  2009/03/26 02:33PM

 

2009/03/24 Tue, cloudy/raining, outdoor 13-14°C, indoor 20.9°C, 《移喜措嘉佛母密傳》:保密防誤解,密宗佛子行

 

睡前看的有關守戒的部分簡單說一下:

守戒的方法是靠守密。四根本密是本尊名、本尊心咒、本尊事業咒以及行者生起證悟成就時所現之徵相。

如此說來,我不知道我們正唸的咒是不是都不可以說。所以出體唸的咒都要匿名,有什麼感應也不能提。

四中級密是修行的地點、時間、地點、同伴以及神聖的法器或工具。

照此說來,出體都不可以寫日期時間,那也實在有點怪,同伴不能寫,以後我寫無機生物好了。註釋說同伴意指「密伴、奴僕或密續儀軌中任何種類的幫助者」。

不共密是根本密續修習中瑜伽行者的所依物,應保密之物,及內供及密供的供品,如藥物、食子等;手用法器,即鈴、杵、唸珠、普巴杵等;壇城用品,如頭骨、手骨、天靈蓋以及腿骨笛等。

我沒有這些東西,我晚課用的唸珠都不帶出門,用布袋包著。

專屬密是有關秘密行之事。總之,一切適合保密之舉,不論是關於上師的,自己的金剛兄弟姊妹的、或一般人的,都不應向他人透露。(簡體《移喜措嘉佛母密傳》p. 35

所以有關上師護法的夢都不宜披露。目前我還算普及版,再往上,上次某師兄說連自己的本尊都不可以向枕邊人透露,他倒是蠻行家的。基本上,這也不是修密才要保密,而是因為聽的人不懂會造成誤解所致。我一直以為我只有受皈依戒,有就是宣誓時上師說的幾點,我只記得不殺生,其他好像都蠻簡單。但這次秋竹師父說貝諾法王病重,有受過他灌頂的弟子,要懺悔違犯三昧耶戒,什麼叫三昧耶?如何來維持三昧耶呢?

 

我用口語說好了,分身口意三方面。身的部分是表達對上師的敬意,敬意必須及於上師所喜愛的人,包括家人、僕役、寵物等等,都要視同上師般尊敬。還好上師沒養狗。語的方面當然是不可以說上師及他的金剛兄弟的過失。意的部分就難了,「佛意三昧耶:持續見、修、行。『見』是深刻的洞察力,『修』則要透過對心的本性經驗性的了解來完成,由『修』所導引的即為無礙的外、內、密行。」(p. 35

 

這裡說到「守護佛身三昧耶:外層上,上師是主人、父母或可愛的舅舅;內層上,他是眼,我們生命本身;密層上,他與本尊無二無別」(p. 32)。「可愛的舅舅」有點意思,怪不得我有次夢到有人勒索我,我跟歹徒說我家人錢都要來要去(供養),況且我大舅(上師)是京防部司令就在拐角,他最好不要淌這趟渾水。想想是不是有點道理?至於內層上師,就要唱〈你是我的眼〉,以守護佛身內層三昧耶。所以你不能對我唱〈你是我的眼〉,這樣表示我是你上師耶。

 

「佛陀語的三昧耶與本尊同在」,這我不知道什麼意思,這裡講的本尊與四手印結合,我也不知道什麼是手印(某種手勢)。好了今天保密防諜講完了,如果讀者寫來稱「末學」那表示是「釋」字輩的,不過釋開頭好像是出家人(法海喇嘛跟我解釋說「釋」表示釋迦牟尼佛的弟子),我們是在家弟子,不能用釋,所以有一位少林武打童星叫釋小龍,他是個小和尚囉。

 


2009/03/25 Wed, sunny/cloudy, outdoor 18-14°C, 20.1°C, The Supreme Source》:一切的行為、活動都是我的裝飾

 

有的夢也是很無聊啦:

2009/01/27 11:40AM. 室內,一群外國人看到一隻狗,牠叫了一聲,他們就叫牠「Echoechoecho。」意思是:有種再重複啊!

最近每每提醒要思維三相:essence, nature, energy,還要不迎不拒——這秋竹上師的口訣。《自性自悟之歌》中一張照片,目前的卡盧仁波切二世遵循歷代慣例在最冷的時候閉關修拙火,出關時僅裹著白色被單和一條禪修帶,一群喇嘛環列,令我印象深刻。

白色布衣實修傳承

在西藏大成就者密勒日巴的時代,噶舉派的瑜伽士主要的穿著很簡單,就是身上只裹著一塊白布,作為簡單的遮蓋,所以又稱為「布衣行者」。因為他們主要是以修持「拙火瑜伽」為主,所以天寒地凍對他們也不會有影響。

之後隨著歷史的演進,幾個世紀後,在西康閉關房得傳統習慣上,要檢驗喇嘛們的修行成果,會在三年三個月閉關中的特定吉祥日,僅著白色布衣出關,特別是在藏曆元月十五號,那是西康一年之中最冷最冷的時候,大概是零下二、三十度,所有閉關的修行者被要求在那個時候把修行「拙火」的功力展現出來,讓觀看者得到加持。(《自性自悟之歌:卡盧仁波切自傳及教法》p. 151

尼古瑪是那洛巴的妹妹,尼古瑪六法跟那洛六法差不多,屬於香巴噶舉法海喇嘛那天跟我說,想修(尼古瑪)六法需要閉關,聽起來跟資深佛友說的差不多。上次他介紹我一位江貢活佛,也是說以我的資質,排除萬難閉關修三個月就可以有成就。我還在繼續看《The Supreme SourceThe Root Tantra,唸到詩文部分,摘一些:

The five elements are Buddha

Abiding in the nature of all beings.

Even if one entertains wrong concepts

Liberation arises from within oneself and not from outside. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 168)

把自身五種元素地水火風空或五蘊看成佛父母是很重要的自身壇城示現,所謂身壇城就像建築人——之前你相簿表頭用的人大字形然後畫一個圈,這就是壇城的概念,是神聖圍場的意思。五蘊五感五毒都是本覺示現,這樣講不清楚,換句話說這些「東西」的來源就是 the supreme source——the pure and total consciousness。南開諾布重複寫到我都會背了。

Meditative stability of supreme quality

Does not involve the thought of meditative stability.

Without applying thought and without needing to purify,

Wisdom arises from discursive thought itself. (p. 169)

Coining the terms "cause and effect,"

Some believe that by eliminating both virtues and negativities

They can release themselves from this world:

However this merely shows great complacency in accepting and rejectting. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 169)

中午開車經過行天宮,我想起我忘記恨它這件事了,之前曾經為了請款事搞得很煩,不去在意它也就忘得一乾二淨,現在對它也不起任何反應。《移喜措嘉佛母密傳》書背摘錄寫得相當精華,當然把周遭人事物都當成自己的業力是大乘菩薩道初級生的事,我們是修九乘之顛大圓滿,當然有不同的見地:

「一切現象都不過是心的遊戲,

我往內看,看不到令我懼怕之物。

這一切都不過是明光自然的照射,

沒有任何理由要對它起反應,

因為一切的行為、活動,都是我的莊嚴,

我應該繼續專注於無言的禪定。」(簡體《移喜措嘉佛母密傳》)

這個「莊嚴」,南開諾布用 ornament,裝飾的意思。

Attachment and non-attachment are only words

As is something in between, like an echo.

Happiness and suffering have the same cause:

This was said by Vajrasattva, lord of being.

 

Attachment, anger, and ignorance 貪瞋癡

Derive from the path of total enlightenment,

The five objects of enjoyment, too, 五蘊

Are said to be the ornaments of the ultimate dimension. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 169)

原來 echo 在這裡啊!

 


2009/03/26 Thur, sunny/cloudy, outdoor 27-21°C, 21.9°C, 《辨法法性論》:序言的六句中英對照

 

K 點新到書《辨法法性論及釋論兩種》。不過看看中文、看看英文,再回過頭來看看中文,塞,通通懂了——也不能這樣講,是「原來如此」啊!

 

《辨法法性論》似乎是初階者看的,我們很久之前曾經少少摘過《辨法法性論——世親釋論》,其實說的是法(dharma)跟法性(dharmata)兩個東西,分別對應的是虛妄顯現與真實存在。這部論是在說如何證入無分別智,就是本智,英文叫 ye shes,這樣說起來,看英文似乎還容易一點:「說到耶喜或移喜,藏文叫 yesheye origin 之意,she 則是意識(consciousness)或智慧(wisdom),合起來就是 primordial knowledge」(《The Supreme Sourcep. 17),本初智慧,簡稱本智。

1. 本論的要旨為藉證本智(ye shes: jnana)以離一切相的執著。此本智為證覺的俱生智

2. 菩薩經歷次第修習,而證得遠離一切具能所二取相的本智。

3. 菩薩首須確立具二取相的「法」所顯現為迷亂。此迷亂由無始以來迷失本智所致。

4. 由此遂有「似二顯現」及「名言顯現」的執著。

5. 因諸法皆為內識變現,是故進一步可證知能觀的心識亦非實有。

6. 菩薩由是證得無有二取分別的證量。此亦即於一切相無所得的「無分別智」。(Raymond Robertson 序,《辨法法性論及釋論兩種p. 17

這是老外寫的序,怪不得句點很多。怎麼可能寫成這樣文謅謅呢?

第一句:

The primary teaching of the Dharmadharmatavibhanga is the abandoning of all the marks of object-possession through the attainment of pristine 原始的 awareness (ye shes, jnana), the original, innate or primordial awareness underlying Buddhahood.

第二句:

The attainment of pristine 原始的 awareness without the marks, signs or cognitive objects supporting either apprehensible objects or apprehending subjects is achieved by the Bodhisattvas in a stepwise process.

第三句:

First the Bodhisttva is to cultivate the perspective that phenomenal appearance experienced in terms of the duality of subject and object, being the result of the atemporal 永久的 loss of pristine awareness, is errancy 錯誤.

這樣摘豈不是累死我了,不如直接敲英文大家容易懂一點。二取相原來說的是主客二元,本智就是「原始的覺知」(pristine awareness),所以我們立志要讀好英文佛書,不然永遠不知道他們說的是同一件事,卻用不同的名詞翻譯,英文字彙倒是沒有這麼多變化。第四句來瞧瞧,兩個引號:

第四句:

When this original errancy is in operation a further errancy is experienced in frustrating engagement with representations of this false duality.

請問一下「名言顯現」在哪裡?快完了,第五句(我刪掉一點好少寫一些):

第五句:

Through essential nature, since what is taken as being an object is a process of fabrication on the part of the subject. This leads to the realization that in this dynamic process the subjective apprehension also has no real existence apart from the process.

第六句:

This is nonconceptual pristine awareness revealed through the nonperception of all the marks otherwise taken as indicating and supporting the duality of subject and object. (辨法法性論及釋論兩種p. 4)

所以無分別就是 nonconceptual 啊搞半天!結論:

Listen, great being! Not even the Boddhas of the past found anything outside their own minds. They never altered the natural condition; they never meditated visualizing conceptually: abiding in the non-discursive state they realized their own mind. The Buddhas of the present, too, and those to come in the future, achieve self-realization through the non-discursive state of equanimity 平靜. (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 178)


  2009/03/08 08:47PM

 

2009/03/27 Fri, cloudy/raining, outdoor 24-21°C  They delight in self-perfection as magical illusion

 

我新買的《辨法法性論及釋論兩種》,原來是我有的兩本釋論的合訂本,是多買的。下一本我們可能優先看《Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State》,1989 英文版。我們繼續來摘點詩文:

Liberation arises from within oneself and not from outside.

Total wisdom is difficult to find:

It is realized through prajna 智慧 and method. (p. 168)

 

The universal path in harmony with that nature

Manifests as the moon and its support.

As it is the absolute equality of everything,

Having a partial view of it, one does not realize it.

 

The three times are equal, without any difference.

There is no past or future; everything has existed since the beginning.

 

Be reborn in the three dimensions of existence,

 All is just a name and a magical illusion;

Even the supreme birth of a universal emperor

Is a magical illusion and only a dimension to purity.

 

Those whose engagement depends on time

Do not see it manifest in time:

For one who engages in desire without having overcome it

The example of emptiness is valid.  (The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 170)

這些講到超越三時的觀念,還有兩句我還是摘一下。肯恩提到一種「失去個人性的狀態」,他說那有種抽離的感覺,desire 的相反,也就是麻木不仁,對於任何人事物都感受不到熱情。而純然的目睹則是一種平等性的不執著,「你從這場域熱情地關注每一樣在其中升起的事物」,「觀看每樣事物都帶著強烈的清晰與明透之感」(《一味》p. 396)。其實我也不是要抄這段,只是紅色標籤剛好貼到這裡就繼續寫。

 

下一個紅色標籤是:「自性次元的世界觀(causal worldview)乃是對浩瀚無邊的無形次元(a vast unmanifest realm)的直接體悟——也就是所謂的空寂、止念、宇宙深淵(Abyss)、無生(Unborn)、根源(Ursprung)、『阿因』(ayn——它們指的是能生出無限萬有(all manifestation springs)的空寂(formless),而『不二』指的則是真空跟萬有的合一。」(p. 416)因為接下來我們要摘「無生」,但你會發現肯恩還是在用既定答案在體悟,以上的說法都很綜合理論派,我們查一下原文他所謂的無生是什麼。

 

不好意思我找不到無生在哪裡。反正大家都沒有生,一切都是顯現,還管他萬有要跑去跟真空結合,真是蠻無聊的。

Being unperturbed, it is the symbol of the Body.

Being immoveable, it is wisdom.

Not grasping anything, it is free of I.

Not rejecting anything, it is equality that transcends words.

 

The king of equality has never spoken

Of male and female. (phe Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, . 171)

我感覺這些內容是完全打破二元對立的,因為本初無始之始沒有什麼對立的東西或者概念或者創造,什麼萬有,真空、妙有都是後來加上去的。

 

J 聽我說到皈依是要找上師受皈依戒,她又說師父還不是犯戒。怎麼有犯戒呢?越往低乘戒律越粗,規範的是行為舉止;越往高乘戒律越細,規範的是心思意念,哪怕有最微細的執著都是犯戒,所以你說師父犯戒嗎?

Fortunate are the yogins

Who abide in this ineffable 難以言說的 state:

Not discriminating between self and others,

They delight in self-perfection as magical illusion. (he Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of Dzogchen Semde, p. 172)

這是我的理解,我要是能稍微達到平等性,就是不分別、不起概念,就已經很高段了。好了寫到這裡,英文版佛書稍微容易一些。

 


2009/03/29 Sun, cloudy/raining, indoor 21.0°C, Dzogchen》:becoming awareness of our own condition 

 

Dzogchen: The Self-perfected StatePart One 的第一章 The Individual: Body, Voice and Mind 我已經看完了,蠻好看的。一開始就說教法應該要落實到日常生活,而不是用來逃避現實或心靈慰藉,後兩者都是宗教的功用,但大圓滿實修是要不離世間,這師父很早就點明了,南開諾布也說:「But the teachings are based on the principle of our actual human condition.」(p. 23

The Dzogchen teachings are neither a philosophy, nor a religious doctrine, nor a cultural tradition. Understanding the message of the teachings means discovering one's own true condition, stripped 除去 of all the self-deceptions 欺騙 and falsifications 曲解 which the mind creates. The very meaning of the Tibetan term Dzogchen, "Great Perfection," refers to the true primordial state of every individual and not to any transcendent 超越經驗的 reality.Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, pp. 23-24

接著講到我覺得是本章最精華的觀念,就是關於慈悲的真實解釋。南開諾布說,許多心靈修行途徑都有一些關於慈悲或利益他人的基礎規範或準則,以大乘佛教傳統來講,慈悲更是修行的基礎,伴隨對萬法空性的瞭解。

Sometimes, however, compassion can become something constructed and provisional, because we don't understand the real principle of it. A genuine, not artificial, compassion, can only arise after we have discovered our own condition. 

The only source of every kind of benefit for others is awareness of our own condition. When we know how to help ourselves and how to work with our situation we can really benefit others, and our feeling of compassion will arise spontaneously, without the need for us to hold ourselves to the rules of behavior of any given religious doctrine. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 24)

有沒有講得很清楚?這樣我們這些知識份子對慈悲感到很被迫的心態就解除了,不然我們老愛問:為什麼要對那些爛人慈悲呢?然後標準答案是每一位眾生前世都當過我們的父母,也實在很難生起這種感覺,我們明明活在這個生世,對前世丈夫都沒感覺了,哪會想到無數生世的父母?

 

上段重點的關鍵字是:becoming awareness of our own condition,什麼意思呢?「It means oberving ourselves, discovering who we are, who we believe we are, and what our attitude is towards others and to life.」(p. 24)而最主要的目的,不是要作個多偉大的人或多慈悲的人,「To be able to help both ourselves and others we need to overcome all the limits in which we are enclosed. This is the true function of the teachings.」(p. 24

 

南開諾布在篇末舉了個例子說明克服限制這件事,他說就像出聲的嬰兒是豪無限制概念的,但從父母懷中學會語言開始,就是不可以這不可以那,以確保一個安全但也受限制的活動規範,慢慢進入學加以社會化的訓練後,今後一生就活在一個人類社會約定好的架構內行禮如儀。譬如籠中的雛鳥雖然生有翅膀,但生於鳥籠的牠們完全喪失探索籠外天空的意圖,翅膀可以在有限的空間飛飛,而大圓滿教法就是在教導我們外面天空的世界是沒有邊界與限制的,除非我們準備好了也逐漸習慣天空,不然我們也不會在天空久留。這是我自己的闡釋啦。即便在籠中讀說天空有多好,也是不明白教法的真義。南開諾布舉一位西方人到西藏為例:

Perhaps he will receive an important initiation 灌頂 and will be stuck by the special atmosphere, by the spiritual "vibration," but will not understand its meaning. Attracted by the idea of an exotic mysticism he may stay for a few months in the monastery, absorbing a few aspects of Tibetan culture and religious customs. When he returns to the West he is convinced that he has understood Buddhism and feels different from those who around him. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 26)

早年我也會陶醉在宗教的彷彿神聖的氛圍中,特別是以能量感知的振動來形容確有其事,基本上也只是受那樣的概念所吸引,對於天主教義如何落實於我的日常生活既不關心也不求理解。許多對佛教的所謂修行者似乎也是如此。南開諾布說一提到他在講授大圓滿,西藏人便會將他貼上標籤是寧瑪派,但對他致力於復興西藏本土宗教苯教時,又會對他貼上標籤為本教徒。他說:「But Dzogchen is not a school or sect, or a religious system. It is simply a state of knowledge which maters have transmitted beyond any limits of sect or monastic tradition. 」(p. 28

The true value of the teachings is beyond all the superstructures people create, and to discover if the teachings are really a living thing for us we just need to observe to what extent we have freed ourselves from all the factors that condition us. Sometimes we might believe we have understood the teachings, and that we know how to apply them, but in practice we still remain conditioned by attitudes and doctrinal principles that are far from true knowledge of our own actual condition. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 28)

跟竹慶本樂仁波切所說相同,大圓滿的上師所做的是藥傳遞知識的狀態給我們(transmit a state of knowledge),目的是要喚醒弟子、打開個人的意識成為本初狀態(The aim of the master is to awaken the student, opening that individual's consciousness to the primordial state)(p. 28)。

 


2009/03/30 Mon, cloudy/raining, outdoor 14-15°C, Dzogchen》:身口意——gross, subtle, most subtle

  

爸爸的朋友王伯伯喜歡跟我談靈修,剛說起他在美國的房子,房客搬走後留下一尊觀世音菩薩像,上面寫「心念不空過,能滅諸有苦」,他知道第二句,問我第一句什麼意思,我也不會,我古文不好,查查看。「心念不空過」,以一心,不讓其空過,在《十句觀音經》中說:「朝念觀世音,暮念觀世音,念念從心起,念念不離心。」王伯伯信回教,所以心念不空過就是隨時將主放在心上,如此依怙他就能滅諸有苦。當然這是大乘佛教,或者跟其他宗教一樣,大圓滿不是這樣;不空過的相反,空過就是許多人以為自己什麼都不想,了不起,那叫頑空,下輩子畜生,什麼都不想嘛,像有部電影「我這樣過一生」。

 

繼續來研討《Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State》。南開諾布說教法必須成為活的知識,可以應用在每天的日常生活及活動中,當然如何應用還要等他說,目前 資深佛友都會說我見跟行是分開的。

Without having to abandon their role in society, because Dzogchen does not change people form the outside. Rather it awakens them internally. The only thing a Dzogchen master will ask is that one observes oneself, to gain the awareness needed to apply the teachings in everyday life. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 29)

上週去業主那簡報,E 又忘記幫我筆電充電;上週五我離開前(因為廠商訪客耽誤了我的時間),請 G 將我桌上泡過的茶葉清掉,他跟我對話了幾句表示一定會做到,今天我問他,他完全不記得這件事,當然 E 這個假人也旁證說沒聽到我說。Things always happened like that. 什麼原因呢?缺乏觀察自己的能力,還不只是記性的問題。

But in Dzogchen no importance at all is attached to philosophical opinions and convictions. The way of seeing in Dzogchen is not based on intellectual knowledge, but on an awareness of the individual's own true condition. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 29)

我之所以喜歡讀南開諾布的書,是因為他用我能懂得詞彙說明,講 consciousness awareness 我們都明白那是什麼,而不像佛法中文書「心意識」似乎是個欲除之而後快的東西,資深佛友每次都說出體要從心意識中出來,老實說,除非我們的名詞定義是相同的,不然我不知道他在說什麼。以「應無所住而生其心」為例,就不是普通的心識,雖然南開諾布也說明兩種心,但多半中文「心」的意義太含糊。心念跟意又有何不同?

 

說到「true condition」,南開諾布還是講身語意,但這回我清楚多了,身是物質層面,化身界;語是能量(voice/energy),之所以講「語」是因為聲音是一種振頻,也就是不可見的,代表能量,報身界;意我比較不清楚,法身界。每個人的真實存在都包含這三種層面或次元,不是成聖的佛陀才有法報化三身。所以清晨醒來觀想上師法報化三身的厲害,然後自己跟他是一樣的,作為一種提醒,這就是寧瑪派三句義:體性本淨、自性光明、大悲周遍,即 essencenatureenergy。可是這裡化身界是能量的展現,能量出現在兩層次喔。也不衝突啦,報身界看到能量光明本性,化身界看到能量物化成形。

It is therefore necessary to begin with what we know, with our human material condition. In the teaching it is explained that the individual is made up of three aspects: body, voice and mind. These constitute our relative condition, which is subject to time and the division of subject form object. 

Through the material dimension of the body we can understand its energy, or the "voice," the second aspect of the individual. Energy is something more subtle and difficult to understand One of its perceivable aspect is vibration, or sound, and therefore it is known as the "voice." The voice is linked to breathing, and breathing to the individual's vital energy. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 31)

南開諾布講到幻輪瑜伽(Yantra Yoga)其目標即在於控制這種生命能量(vital energy)。所以持誦咒語也是藉由音頻的振動能量跟報身界的聖眾連結,南開諾布解釋說:「A mantra is a series of syllables whose power resides in its sound, through the repeated pronouncing of which one can obtain control of a given form of energy. The energy of the individual is closely linked to the external energy, and each can influence the other.」(Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 31

 

這本書至少台灣讀的人不多,以後讀者可以看到一些內容也是因緣。上面所說生命能量,當人能量弱時,南開諾布說無疑是開了一扇門讓其他界眾生的騷擾(disturbances)與病恙進入。所以,「great importance is given to maintaining the completeness of the individual's energy」(p. 31)。另一方面說,完全能控制自身能量的人則可施展奇蹟,「Such activity is actually the result of having control one's own energy, through which one obtains the capacity of power over external phenomena.」(p. 31

 

說不清楚的「意」來了。如果「身」對應的是粗重(gross)層次,「語」是微細(subtle)層次,那麼,「意」則是對應「最微細」(most subtle)層。

The mind is the most subtle and hidden aspect of our relative condition, but it is not difficult to notice its existence. All one has to do is to observe one's thoughts and how we let ourselves get caught up in their flow. The mind is the uninterrupted flow of thoughts which arise and then disappear. There is something we call the "nature of the mind," the mind's true condition, which is beyond all limits. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 32)

稍後一章會以鏡子為例,說明心性就像鏡子會反射的特性一樣,我們為有藉由鏡子裡的影像來得知鏡子會反射的性質,別無他法,所以鏡子會反射的性質跟所反射的影像是不可分離的。這裡講到的是心的明分(部分),跟顯現不二即基於此道理。那麼,我們要認識心性,同樣也要藉由心續流或意識流或思想流,隨便怎麼講啦就是那個永無止息的心念,唯有藉由心念認知心性,因為心念是因為心的反映特性。

 

好棒啊!所以回到前封的主旨:「心念不空過」,但我講的不是要空或不空的問題,大圓滿不講究刻意讓心念止滅,不受其擺佈就可以,這要下回分解了。

 


2009/03/31 Tue, cloudy, outdoor 14-15°C  Dzogchen》:nature of the mirror

 

繼續南開諾布。昨天講到自心本性如同鏡子反射的特性:

What do we mean by this "nature of the mirror"? We mean its capacity to reflect, definable as its clarity, its purity, and its limpidity 清澈, which are indispensable 不可或缺的 conditions for the manifestation of reflections. This "nature of the mirror" is not something visible, and the only way we can conceive of it is through the images reflected in the mirror. In the same way, we only know and have concrete experience of that which is relative to our condition of body, voice, and mind. But this itself is the way to understand their true nature. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 32)

這裡說的是反射是讓我們發現自己本性的方法(reflections being the means for us to discover our own true nature),無論醒時或夢時我想都是一樣的。上午的夢有點詭異的是,我很少在普通夢聽到咒音:

2009/01/31 09:18AM. 晚上我來到一處矮圍牆邊,圍牆外遠方一排房子是西藏民宅,面前一大片是西藏人重的農作物,非常整齊而奇特的植物,民宅則跟布達拉宮類四似,兩側低朝中央層層高疊的紅磚立面。咒聲響起,有點像百字明,所以我本來想挨著矮牆唸百字明,但旋即發現咒聲不大一樣,便沿小巷走到橫向路口。一堆人在那集結,除了人以外,還有一堆剝皮兔,再看是一群剝皮猴,一個疊著一個通通沒有毛髮,非常肉體的感覺。我把手上兩對動物放生,其中一對像老鼠,不過是白色頸一圈黑、頭有點黑色圖案這樣。地上好多螞蟻,我怕那對像老鼠的會從水溝蓋爬下去,確定牠們沒事,然後我才朝右走回寄宿的人家中。……

假設像這樣的夢我們怎麼解釋自性的反射呢?還是我們只知道心會反射、投射,然後不管它(投射的影像),循來源回溯,就是本然存在的狀態?南開諾布說這些「reflections become a factor that conditions us, and we live distracted by the relative condition, attaching great importance to everything」,還真是蠻對的。

This dualistic condition, which is the general situation of all human beings, is called "ignorance" in the teachings.

In the Dzogchen teachings the term "knowledge" or the "state of knowledge" denotes a state of consciousness which is like a mirror, in that its nature cannot be stained by whatever images are reflected in it. When we find ourselves in the knowledge of our true nature, nothing can condition us. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 34)

南開諾布接著說說:「基於此,我們不需要放棄或轉化相對的情況,而只要去瞭解他的真實本性。」放棄是小乘的做法,轉化則是密續的做法,這是下章的內容。本章節論:

Understand our true nature means upstanding the relative condition and knowing how to reintegrate with its essential nature, so that we become once again like a mirror that can reflect any object whatsoever, manifesting its clarity. (Dzogchen: The Self-perfected State, p. 38)

今天摘到這裡。〈佐欽堪布邱嘎仁波切對大圓滿弟子關於貝諾法王圓寂的開示〉,有段解釋了向融入法界的大成就者祈請的原委:

This may come as sad news to some because it seems that he has left this world, but actually he is never separate from us. He always lives in the heart of our faith. According to Dzogchen Tantras, when a great enlightened teacher passes into parinirvana 涅槃 students have an extraordinary moment to receive blessings from this teacher by making supplications and offerings, as well as making profound personal commitments and aspirations. This is an especially powerful time to request teachings and blessings while praying that more emanations of this master manifest in this world to benefit all beings.

這可以說是一個悲傷的消息,但事實上他從未離開我們。他總是與我們心中的信心同在。依據大圓滿續部,當偉大的證悟上師趨入涅槃,弟子此時有絕佳的機會藉由祈請與供養來領受加持,或是發甚深的誓言與願望。這是一個特別有力量的時刻,可以祈請這位上師為了利益眾生,變化眾多化身以賜予教導跟加持。

大覺者圓寂之後,依之作任何勝妙的發願與誓言都會很快成就。(〈佐欽堪布邱嘎仁波切對大圓滿弟子關於貝諾法王圓寂的開示〉)


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